ROYAL LINEAGES and links - just a FEW samples...
Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (926 or 941–23 April 1014) (known as Brian Boru in English) was High King of Ireland from 1002 to 1014. Although the exact details of his birth are unknown, he was born in the mid tenth century near Killaloe (Kincora) (in modern County Clare). His father was Cennétig mac Lorcáin, King of Thomond and his mother was Bé Binn ingen Murchada, daughter of the King of West Connacht. He subsequently united most of the Irish Kings and Chieftains to defeat the Danish King of Dublin who led an army of Irish and Vikings at the Battle of Clontarf.
Henry I (c. 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and the first born in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the rudimentary administrative and legislative machinery of the time.
Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged the Magna Carta, which subjected the King to law.
The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury. He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the Anglo-Saxon and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old Saxon royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship. His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda, but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.
William I of England (William the Conqueror; c. 1028 – 9 September 1087) was a medieval monarch. He ruled as the Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087 and as King of England from 1066 to 1087. As Duke of Normandy, William was known as William II, and, as King of England, as William I. He is commonly referred to as William the Conqueror (Guillaume le Conquérant) or William the Bastard (Guillaume le Bâtard).
In support of his claim to the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans to victory over the Anglo-Saxon forces of Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts in what has become known as the Norman Conquest.
His reign brought Norman culture to England, which had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages. In addition to political changes, his reign also saw changes to English law, a programme of building and fortification, changes in the English language and the introduction of continental European feudalism into England.
Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. He ranks as the first of the Plantagenet or Angevin Kings.
Henry's father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, held rich lands as a vassal from Louis VII of France. Maine and Anjou were therefore Henry's by birthright, amongst other lands in Eastern France. . By maternal claim, Normandy was also to be his. However, the most valuable inheritance Henry received from his mother was a claim to the English throne. Grand-daughter of William I of England, Empress Matilda's line was most entitled to the crown, but because she was female her cousin became Stephen I of England. Henry's efforts to restore the royalty line to his own family line would create a dynasty spanning three centuries and thirteen Kings.
Henry's marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine placed him firmly in the ascendancy . His plentiful lands were added to his new wife's possessions, giving him control of Aquitaine and Gascony. The riches of the markets and vineyards in these regions, combined with Henry's already plentiful holdings, made Henry the most power vassal in France.
Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland from 1306 until his death in 1329.
Although his paternal ancestors were of Scoto-Norman heritage (originating in Brieux, Normandy), his maternal ancestors were Scottish-Gaels, and he became one of Scotland's greatest kings, as well as one of the most famous warriors of his generation, eventually leading Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence against the Kingdom of England. He claimed the Scottish throne as a great-great-great-great grandson of David I of Scotland.
His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart is buried in Melrose Abbey. His heart was to be taken on crusade eventually to the Holy Land, but only reached Moorish Granada, where it acted as a talisman for the Scottish contingent at the Battle of Teba.
Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19 AD) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. He was called either Nero Claudius Drusus or Tiberius Claudius Nero at birth and received the agnomen "Germanicus", by which he is principally known, in 9 BC, when it was awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania.
Germanicus was very popular among the citizens of Rome, who celebrated enthusiastically all his victories. He was also a favourite with Augustus, his great-uncle and his wife's grandfather, who, for some time, considered him as heir to the Empire. In 4, at the persuasion of Livia (Augustus' wife), Augustus decided in favour of Tiberius, a stepson from Livia's first marriage. Augustus compelled Tiberius to adopt Germanicus as a son and name him as his heir. (Tacitus, Annals IV.57)
Germanicus assumed several military commands leading the army in the campaigns in Pannonia and Dalmatia. He is recorded to have been an excellent soldier and inspired leader, loved by the legions. In the year 12 he was appointed consul after five mandates as quaestor.
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